Safety, Health and Wellbeing

Driving in remote locations

Our role is to develop and assist in the implementation of the UWA safety, health and wellbeing programs in order to minimise the risk of injury, illness and property damage.

We provide consultancy and other services to promote best practice and legislative compliance in all University and related activities.

Staff and students who drive in remote locations must be aware that they place themselves in a situation where they are exposed to higher than normal levels of risk.

These procedures establish administrative and safety and health arrangements for the conduct of driving in locations classified as "remote" and for the driving of vehicles over long distances or off-road. The procedure is based upon current practices observed within the University as well as those commonly used in other Commonwealth and State Government authorities.

  1. Definitions
  2. School responsibilities
  3. Drivers' responsibilities
  4. Administrative arrangements
  5. Transport
  6. Communications
  7. Clothing and safety equipment
  8. Health
  9. First aid equipment
  10. Driving for extended periods or in remote areas
  11. Appendix 1: Recommended equipment for field work in remote locations

Definitions

For the purpose of these procedures, the following definitions apply:

  1. Remote Work: defined both in terms of distance and inaccessibility as any work carried out at any non-permanently staffed University site and which entails:
    1. working more than 10km from a frequently trafficked road, farmhouse or other facility with telephone or radio communications
    2. off-road in areas including river, inland waterways and estuarine locations where very little traffic is likely or where topographic features would make it difficult to summon help either from a farm or town
  2. Off Road: any location other than a major or minor formed road.
  3. 4WD: Vehicle with dual range Four Wheel Drive capability configured to meet the drivers licence class (Auto/Manual)

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School responsibilities

The Head of School is ultimately responsible for ensuring:

  • the driver has an appropriate and current drivers licence (domestic or international)
  • the driver has completed either the approved four-wheel-drive course or has undertaken a similar accredited course if off-road or remote work is to be undertaken
  • meeting the cost of any overnight accommodation for staff, in cases which require valid additional or unscheduled overnight stops
  • each University vehicle has a log book which is completed by the driver for every trip
  • vehicle users are aware of the procedures for working in remote locations, prior to departure on any trip
  • the roadworthiness of all vehicles at all times, including any hire vehicles.

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Drivers' responsibilities

Please refer to Driver Safety Guidelines for specific driver responsibilities and checks to be carried out prior to departure and during trips.


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Administrative arrangements

  1. A risk assessment of the work to be undertaken during the field trip should be carried out prior to departure. The nature of the work and the experience of the staff or students attending the field trip should be considered. In many cases it will be unsafe for people to be working alone. If it is considered safe to be working alone, suitable communication sources, equipment, survival supplies and first aid will required to ensure adequate safety levels.
  2. Completion of the one day approved four-wheel-drive course is recommended for staff and students who wish to undertake a field trip involving remote work or the use of a four-wheel-drive vehicle. No other personnel are authorised to drive except in an emergency and this should be entered in a log book.
  3. Local rules or modified procedures particularly appropriate to the School but consistent with this policy may be developed. Agreed rules must be complied with and personnel who deliberately expose themselves or others to risk by non-compliance are to be counselled and if necessary excluded from field work.
  4. Trip plans shall be submitted to the School for approval by field trip leaders prior to undertaking field work and basic details provided shall include:
    • a log book of prior vehicle inspections and the supplementary safety equipment. This should be signed by a senior administration or technical officer and kept in a secure location at the beginning and end of each trip. (This applies to University-owned vehicles only.)
    • time and date of departure
    • expected time and date of return
    • major roads/towns to be covered "en route"
    • approximate work area (map or grid reference)
    • names of all staff and students in group
    • any agreed radio or telephone call-in schedules.
  5. Notification of local authorities of where you intend to be, for how long and when you will contact them again.

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Transport

An appropriate type of vehicle is to be supplied for field work

  • Four- wheel drive vehicles should be used for all off road-situations including where rough unsealed roads, or rugged terrain and variable soft soil conditions may be encountered.
  • Two wheel drive use on standard (well-formed and maintained) gravel roads needs to be assessed by the School during trip planning. Should an unforeseen circumstance arise during the trip the driver must also assess the risk accordingly.

All four-wheel drive vehicles used for field work should be equipped with the following:

  • a diesel engine
  • a steel bull-bar capable of being used as a jacking point and of supporting at least 2/3rds of the weight of the vehicle
  • a rear bumper bar capable of being used in a similar manner to the bull-bar
  • air-conditioning.

The following items are strongly recommended for inclusion as vehicle equipment:

  • driving lights (spot lights)
  • long range water and fuel tanks
  • cargo crash barriers.

Where vehicles are to be used off-road or in remote locations, appropriate spare parts, tools, recovery equipment and adequate supplies of emergency rations and water must be carried. (A comprehensive list of these items is included in Appendix 1). These items are to be checked in a log book prior to departure, with the log book to be held by the school senior administrative or technical officer.

Field work may be cancelled if a suitable vehicle is not made available.

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Communications

All vehicles for remote field work must be fitted with a two-way radio or satellite telephone with frequencies which include those of the Royal Flying Doctor Service and other appropriate Federal and State Government authorities.

All personnel undertaking field work must be trained in the use of the communication equipment and liase with local authorities as outlined above.

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Clothing and safety equipment

The appropriate kind of safety equipment and clothing of an occupational nature needed for the field trip should be dictated by experience and common sense.

Where requested, the School/Section must provide staff the necessary special items as part of their management and legal responsibility to provide a safe place of work and a safe system of work for employees. For outdoor work this may include the provision of hats, sunscreen, field boots and other clothing to protect against harsh climatic conditions which may be encountered. Students must provide their own protective clothing. The School/Section may provide sunscreen and insect repellent.

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Health

All people who participate in remote field work should be reasonably fit and have no existing medical conditions which could reasonably be expected to give rise to a life-threatening situation. If anyone is taking regular medication it is vital that adequate supplies are carried on the trip.

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First aid equipment

Field work locations are University workplaces as defined within Safety and Health legislation and as such compliance with relevant regulations is required.

Regulations which concern first aid require an employer to provide for every 25 people or part thereof, a dust-proof first aid box or cabinet stocked with such medical supplies as are appropriate for treating injuries caused or likely to be caused to people, having regard to the work being carried out. In addition at least one person must have control of the use of the contents of the first aid box or cabinet.

For field trips the box or cabinet should be portable, light, compact and durable as it may have to survive and remain sterile in adverse conditions, and it should be stored carefully in the vehicle to prevent damage and be readily accessible. Such equipment is to be supplied by the relevant School/Section, and the condition of such equipment is to be monitored and a log kept.

A person trained in first aid should be included as a member of each field trip group. A first aid kit should only be seen as supplementary to the essential requirements of training in first aid for field trip personnel and reliable 24-hour communication facilities.

The School/Section should encourage relevant staff and students to attend first aid training on a regular basis. First aid courses can be arranged via the School/Section or Safety and Health.

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Driving for extended periods or in remote areas

Where this type of driving is to be undertaken, the following should be observed:

  • No more than 10 hours in a 24-hour period should be taken up with driving. The total time spent travelling, inclusive of breaks, should not exceed 12 hours, even where the driving is shared.
  • Regular breaks must be taken at least every two hours to walk and stretch (note driving can be shared between multiple authorised drivers).
  • Ordinary duty (which does not involve driving duty) combined with driving duty shall not exceed 12 hours in any period of 24 hours.
  • Alcohol shall not be consumed or prescription drugs which may affect the ability to drive safely, eight hours prior to working or during the period of the journey by any person involved with driving duties.
  • The distance which can reasonably be covered during the space of a day's driving will be also be governed by:
    1. driver fatigue
    2. legal speed limits
    3. climatic conditions and weather
    4. the type of vehicle used.
  • The general wellbeing of the driver, in particular fatigue, is paramount and takes precedence over agreed guidelines particularly when the driver is subject to fatigue.
  • The time at which the journey is to be undertaken, its duration and the distance to be covered shall be reasonable in the circumstances and be planned in advance.
  • Provision shall be made for regular and adequate rest breaks to avoid driver fatigue.
  • If the driver has to perform duty immediately before or after the official journey, the duration of the journey shall be limited accordingly.
  • Wherever practicable more than one driver shall travel in vehicles, especially where all or part of the journey is to be undertaken in isolated areas or under arduous climatic conditions.
  • There should be no likelihood that the undertaking of any particular journey will result in unusual risks.

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Appendix 1: Recommended equipment for field work in remote locations

Essential items

  • Vehicle handbook
  • Maps and compass
  • First-aid kit
  • Fire extinguisher
  • Knife (pocket or sheath)
  • Trouble lamp
  • Portable warning signs

Remote area items

  • Wheel chains
  • Jerry cans
  • CB Radio or satellite phone
  • Pick
  • Radiator blind or tarpaulin
  • Flares
  • GPS
  • EPIRB
  • Workshop manual
  • Survival book
  • Survival kit

Miscellaneous repair items

  • Aero start
  • Spare nuts, bolts, washers and the like
  • Gasket cement
  • PVC fuel hose
  • Contact cement
  • Silicone adhesive
  • Araldite, Plastibond or the like
  • Radiator stop leak
  • Fencing wire
  • Dewatering fluid (such as CRC)

Recovery equipment

  • Duct or gaffer tape
  • Self-amalgamating tape
  • Insulation tape
  • High-lift jack
  • Leather gloves
  • Snatch strap
  • Rope
  • Winch (including wire rope and handles)
  • Shovel
  • Snatch block
  • Axe
  • Shackles

Items for both petrol diesel engines

  • Drive belts (such as fan and power steering belts)
  • Radiator and heater hoses
  • Oil filter
  • Fuel filter
  • Brake fluid
  • Wire
  • Fuses and fusible link
  • Globes
  • Oil seals for input/output shafts
  • Wheel bearings
  • Tyres and tubes
  • Valves for tubes
  • Tyre/tube patches, glue and similar items as necessary.

Additional items required for petrol engines

  • Ignition coil
  • Condenser
  • Spark plugs
  • Points
  • Distributor cap
  • Rotor arm
  • High-tension leads
  • Fuel pump repair kit
 

Tools

  • Wheel brace
  • Comprehensive tool kit (with all necessary size sockets and spanners)
  • Jack (standard) and base plate
  • Jumper leads
  • Tyre pump
  • Tyre pressure gauge
  • Hacksaw and blades
  • G Clamp
  • Drill – a hand or 12-volt and set of drill bits
  • Soldering iron (12-volt) and solder
  • Tyre levers
  • Rubber mallet
  • Wire brush
  • Electrical circuit tester
  • Tyre changing safety harness

Lubricants etc

  • Engine oil
  • Transmission oil
  • Distilled water
  • Water – enough to fill radiator in addition to drinking water